2014-04-28 Mon 10:15
Let's go to a Japanese castle in Comics (3/4)をＵＰしました。
How to Read Manga ←まんがの読み方（英語）が別ウインドウで開きます。
Part 1. ←Part 1.がこのウインドウで開きます。
Part 2. ←Part 2.がこのウインドウで開きます。
Part 4. ←Part 4.がこのウインドウで開きます。
[Tenshu / Tenshu-kaku]
Tenshu(-kaku) is the main Yagura of a castle.
Heh?! Yagura? Is that... the same as the building we just saw?
Yeah. usually, the feudal lord's house is away from the castle.
They're less well known because so few of them are still standing.
Now, let's take a look at Hafu(: a kind of roof ornament,) which you can also see on some other buildings.
Hafu are mentioned in things like tourist brochures.
I will start with the easiest one to spot.
This curved Hafu is more decorative.
You can often find them in Shinto shrines and temples.
They are shaped like a sideways bow.
Then, there are three confusingly similar types.
Basically, the roof of a Yagura is like this.
You can usually find it in Shinto shrines and Temples.
This one is decoration.
The triangle Hafu is fixed in the slope of the roof.
This one is shapeed like the "介" Kanji or the body of a squid.
I'll show you how to tell them apart.
First, the wall under the Kiritsuma-hafu is flat.
Next, the bottom of the Chidori-Hafu is buried under the roof.
Irimoya-Hafu. These lines stretch to the edge of the eaves.
[Hiyoku (such-and-such) Hafu]
When two of the same sized Hafus are laid side-by-side, they are called "Hiyoku (such-and-such) Hafu.
This is called Hiyoku-Chidori-Hafu
If you can understand this, you'll enjoy the castle more.
There are many guides in which the word "Hafu" appears.
*The guides don't give enough information on "Hafu."
Hey, I have a question... How many floors does this castle have?
Piece of cake! Well, one, two...
Good try! The answer is...
"You won't know till you've gone to the top!"
What are you talking about?!
You can see by the castle... well, one, two...
Let me explain while you're counting.
You can often see "Sou" and "Kai" in many Tenshu guide.
"Sou" are the levels on the outside that Penchin is counting now.
"Kai" are the levels on the inside.
The number of Sou and Kai are not always the same.
Usually, there are the same number of each, in the case of later "Soutou-gata-Tenshu" (except in rare cases.)
But, you need to look carefully to spot an early "Bourou-gata-Tenshu."
For examle, some Tenshus have 3 Sou and 4 Kai, some have 4 Sou and 6 Kai...
What's the difference?
[Soutou-gata] is a single, complete tower from the bottom to the top.
The floors become smaller and smaller the higher you go, and most floors are square, so it has a simple shape.
If you look at it from above, like this... it's like a big Christmas tree.
Usually, this kind of Tenshu has no Mawari-en balcony on its Bourou(: watchtower
[Bourou-gata] is made as if the upper Bourou part was dropped on the lower Irimora building.
You might think the upper and lower parts are two different structures.
It looks like the upper part is stuck onto the lower part.
Typically, this kind of Tenshu has a Mawari-en on its Bourou.
*Mawari-en/Kouran: a sort of balcony. There are types that allow you to walk around the outside of the Tenshu, and others that don't.
Why are the numbers of Sou and Kai different?
With the "Bourou-gata" style, it is possible to make a room in the roof section... in the lower Irimoya or a floor under the Mawari-en, so it happens that there are more Kai than Sou.
Why didn't they build Soutou-gata style castles from the beginning? It's confusing...
This one looks much easier to build.
You're right. It was also easier to gather building materials for the Soutou-gata.
They could finish building it quickly.
But, the reason Soutou-gata appeared later is down to the way the stone base of the building was constructed.
Heh? Is it related to the defensive walls?
Yeah, in the early days they didn't make a perfectly square bases for the castle.
Because of that, they built the first floor to fit into the awkward square...
and arranged the Bourou on top of that.
It's a good job they could build outside of the lower shape.
...This is a Bourou-gata style castle, but is new.
Hmm, the Soutou-gata was added later. But that doesn't mean "Bourou-gata" stopped being built.
Though Tenshu fall roughly into these two types, some are difficult to categorise. However this is clearly "Bourou-gata."
How many floors are there inside?
Hah! What are those spikes??
Ah, they are "*Shinobi-gaeshi."
The name means "*Ninja obstructor."
Hah! What's that sticking out part?
That thing is called an "Ishi-Otoshi."
It is used to fend off invaders climbing up the wall by throwing down stones, arrows lead balls and such like.
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