2014-04-15 Tue 17:10
Let's go to a Japanese castle in Comics (2/4)をＵＰしました。
How to Read Manga ←まんがの読み方（英語）が別ウインドウで開きます。
Part 1. ←Part 1.がこのウインドウで開きます。
Part 3. ←Part 3.がこのウインドウで開きます。
Part 4. ←Part 4.がこのウインドウで開きます。
I can see the different times!
Ah... as a matter of fact... these walls are all the same age.
It's just that Kyo-go was too lazy to build them all to the same standard.
Some castles use several different building styles.
So, the wall is built in a zigzag line because he got tired?
No, this is a defensive feature. (Maybe...)
You can aim at the invaders with a broad view since the zigzag reduce the number of blind spots.
[Yoko-Ya] attack invaders from the side. *Ya: arrow
[Yoko-Ya-Gakari] (Feature to) help attack enemies from many different directions.
This helps to make the castle stronger and more defendable.
By the way, what's that graffiti?
Ah, they're special markings...
There are many theories, the most widely believed one says that, the marks show "which Daimyo(:local lord) donated which rock."
Another theory is that they show the names of the mason who built each section.
It was so that the more powerful Daimyo(: their feudal lord) could see which of his vassals donated rocks.
Hmm... one of these walls tell a story about battles that were fought in toe local Nawabari(:territory.)
How could you know about that? Somebody told you to say it, didn't they?
The most important stage in the construction of a castle is the planning and arrangement of the Nawabari.
The sections separated by stone walls or Hori are called "Kuruwa" or "Maru."
The most important aspects of design are strength and use of land.
○Hon-maru: The main Kuruwa of the castle (and Tenshu) is here.
◎Nino-maru: This Kuruwa protects the Hon-maru directly.
●Sanno-maru: This Kuruwa protects the Nino-maru directly, and the Hon-maru indirectly.
They come in many designs!
*small examples of different Kuruwa
As I recall, there was a viewing tower like that on the other side.
I'm jealous, I want to go there...
A Yagura isn't quite the same as a viewing tower.
It is used to keep a lookout for invaders.
Yagura were originally used as a weapons stores, but Yagura were later developed to become watch towers.
Watch towers built on the corner like this are called [Sumi-Yagura.]
When they're built along the wall, they're called [Tamon-yagura / Nagaya.]
On the gate, they're called [Yagura-Mon.]
There are many other kind of Yagura.
You keep saying "invaders"...
Did you notic the holes in the "Do-bei(clay wall)?"
Yeah. There are various shapes, like a circles, triangles and squares.
They're neat, aren't they?
They are called "Sama" (or "Hazama") and they are made for aiming at invaers!
[Teppou-Sama / Ju-gan]
And they are designed for matchlock rifles.
*Teppou, Ju: firearms
The rectangles are [Ya-zama], for bows.
This must be...
This place is another one of the defensive features...
As soon as I thought "I broke through the gate!," there is another gate.
Defenders try to wipe out the troops who get caught in this square space = [Masugata(: barbican)].
This is a typical "Masugata-Koguchi."
*Koguchi: gateways of a castle
It's a square space surrounded by Do-rui or defensive walls for containing and attacking invaders.
Another defensive feature is the fact that the second gateway is not built facing the first.
[Koguchi] come in a variety of types!
[Hira-Koguchi / Hirairi-Koguchi]
A barrier (such as Do-rui, defensive wall) built in a single line. You can go straight into the castle, so it's not very good for defence.
Two barriers that are not built in line. You can't go straight, so it's designed to frustrate invaders.
I already told you about the Masugata.
Masugata built outside a barrier is called [Soto-Masugata / De-Masugata.]
Masugata built inside a barrier is called the [Uchi-Masugata.]
There is a slope in front of the gateway, which is good for frustrating and tiring invaders.
The advanced Koguchi, called "Uma-Dashi," is a Kuruwa located outside the gateway for protecting the Koguchi.
It is designed so that defenders can easily shoot at many angles.
The shape of a Maru-Uma-dashi is semi-circular.
A Kaku-Uma-Dashi is square.
I have no intention of attacking... Oh, it's unlocked.
Oof! He's done a bad job on these stairs as well!
This is a defensive feature too.
These steps were built in different shapes and sizes on purpose to slow down invaders.
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