2014-04-05 Sat 21:58
Let's go to a Japanese castle in Comics (1/4)をＵＰしました。
How to Read Manga ←まんがの読み方（英語）が別ウインドウで開きます。
Part 2. ←Part 2.がこのウインドウで開きます。
Part 3. ←Part 3.がこのウインドウで開きます。
Part 4. ←Part 4.がこのウインドウで開きます。
Let's go to a Japanese castle!
... This letter is from Kyo-go.
Finally, he got his own castle. He says "come over right now."
Let me just...
Hey, it's not the end of the month yet.
I think he just meant his "house."
Wow, you have a talent!
Heh?! This is a castle, right?
Ah... anyway, let's go.
*What is a castle?
I'm sure a lot of people think of a castle as a Tenshu (=Tenshukaku:keep.)
In a broad sense a castle is a building for defending against invaders, so the keep is not absolutely necessary.
Therefore, you can call this a castle.
Do-Rui: mound for protecting yourself against invaders.
Heh? No way! The keep IS absolutely necessary!
Oh... you brought your picture...
I know that this sounds strange, but there were some castles without keeps.
And before ODA Nobunaga's castle, there were very few built with keeps.
*The keep of Azuchi-jo built by ODA Nobunaga, was the first to be named Tenshu.
I think it's near here... What's that?!
Ho! My dear Shachi-hoko!
Oh, I see... You live in the house opposite...
At last!! I bought the castle!!
I'd love to show you around, but I'm too busy right now.
I'll be in there (the Tenshu.) Take your time and look around.
See you later then!
You invited me...
Why did you shut the gate...
Let's look around the castle!
Well, if you say so.
It looks like we'll have to find another entrance...
Ha! Look, there is a bird in the pond!
You mean "Hori(: moat)," right?
It's a kind of defensive feature.
This is called "Mizu-Bori(Mizu: water, Bori: Hori)," because it is filled with water.
On the other hand, "Kara-Bori(Kara: empty)" has no water.
There are other types of Hori, but their function is always the same: keeping back invaders.
☆A few examples of Hori (built on a mountain):
1. Yoko-Bori: laterally-dug Hori
2. Tate-Bori: longitudinally-dug Hori
3. Hori-Kiri: Hori crossing a ridge line
*Similarly, there are Do-rui and Seki-rui. (Do: soil, Seki: rock, Rui: mound)
Oh, no! The Karamete-Mon is closed too, I might have guessed.
Yeah, it's the back gate. The front gate that Kyo-go shut is called the Ohte-Mon.
Invaders who attack head-on are called "Ohte," and the ones who attack from behind are called "Karamete."
☆Ishi-gaki(: defensive wall)
Ho! By the way, when I take a closer look, it looks strange.
Don't you mean strong?
...And you can guess the time it was built by the shape of the rocks.
I know! It gets older the further down you go.
Are you talking about Chisou(: layers of earth)?
Go-Chisou(: A treat)?
There are three main types. First,
[Nozura-zumi / Noishi-zumi]
: rubblework (it's made of different shaped, piled rocks.)
☆Good points: It's tough and has good drainage.
☆Bad points: It's easy for invaders to climb since there are many footholds. It doesn't look good.
It takes a lot of skill to place so many different shaped rocks together.
It's made of different shaped rocks carved and placed together more tightly than Nozura-zumi. (The gaps are filled with small stones.)
☆Good points: It's possible to build Uchikomi-hagi steeper and higher than Nozura-zumi.
☆Bad points: Its drainage isn't as good as Nozura-zumi's and it needs a drainage facility.
[Kirikomi-hagi / Kiriishi-zumi]
Skillfully carved rocks placed tightly together by design.
☆Good points: There are almost no gaps or footholds. It looks orderly.
☆Bad points: It has bad drainage and needs a drainage facility.
At first, the most common kind of defensive wall was Nozura-zumi.
After the Battle of Sekigahara, it was Uchikomi-hagi. Then, from the beginning of the Edo Period, it was Kirikomi-hagi.
Now, I will introduce two typical building styles.
[Nuno-zumi] Transverse joint / Bed joint
Nuno: horizontal, flat, sideways
This looks orderly, but it is not strong.
This is made by rocks of different sizes and shapes, and the joint lines are not in order.
You mean, Nozura-zumi is Ran-zumi, right?
Well, Nozura-zumi is almost the same as Ran-zumi.
But, actually, it can be more similar to a Nuno-zumi's Nozura-zumi when it is lined up like this.
You should consider shape and building style separately.
shape x building style
[Nozura-zumi] [Uchikomi-hagi] [Kirikomi-hagi] x [Nuno-zumi] [Ran-zumi]
*Basically, the six patterns, by combining these shapes and building styles, are standard.
The corner is another important part of the building.
The corner is almost always "Sangi-zumi" style, which has great strength.
It's built by alternating the long and short sides of the cuboid rocks.
There is another type of corner called "Kasane-zumi" but, it isn't so strong.
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